Biotechnology From Wikipedia

Biotechnology From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Biotech Corn MIT
Biotech Corn MIT

Insulin crystals Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. The United Nations
Convention on Biological Diversity defines biotechnology as:

Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for
specific use.

Biotechnology is often used to refer to genetic engineering technology of the 21st century, however the term encompasses a wider range and history of
procedures for modifying biological organisms according to the needs of humanity, going back to the initial modifications of native plants into
improved food crops through artificial selection and hybridization. Bioengineering is the science upon which all biotechnological applications are
based. With the development of new approaches and modern techniques, traditional biotechnology industries are also acquiring new horizons enabling
them to improve the quality of their products and increase the productivity of their systems.

Before 1971, the term, biotechnology, was primarily used in the food processing and agriculture industries. Since the 1970s, it began to be used by
the Western scientific establishment to refer to laboratory-based techniques being developed in biological research, such as recombinant DNA or
tissue culture-based processes, or horizontal gene transfer in living plants, using vectors such as the Agrobacterium bacteria to transfer DNA into a
host organism. In fact, the term should be used in a much broader sense to describe the whole range of methods, both ancient and modern, used to
manipulate organic materials to reach the demands of food production. So the term could be defined as, “The application of indigenous and/or
scientific knowledge to the management of (parts of) microorganisms, or of cells and tissues of higher organisms, so that these supply goods and
services of use to the food industry and its consumers.

Biotechnology combines disciplines like genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, embryology and cell biology, which are in turn linked to practical
disciplines like chemical engineering, information technology, and robotics. Patho-biotechnology describes the exploitation of pathogens or pathogen
derived compounds for beneficial effect.

History

Brewing was an early application of biotechnologyMain article: History of Biotechnology The most practical use of biotechnology, which is still
present today, is the cultivation of plants to produce food suitable to humans. Agriculture has been theorized to have become the dominant way of
producing food since the Neolithic Revolution. The processes and methods of agriculture have been refined by other mechanical and biological sciences
since its inception. Through early biotechnology, farmers were able to select the best suited and highest-yield crops to produce enough food to
support a growing population. Other uses of biotechnology were required as crops and fields became increasingly large and difficult to maintain.
Specific organisms and organism by-products were used to fertilize, restore nitrogen, and control pests. Throughout the use of agriculture farmers
have inadvertently altered the genetics of their crops through introducing them to new environments and breeding them with other plants–one of the
first forms of biotechnology. Cultures such as those in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Pakistan developed the process of brewing beer. It is still done by
the same basic method of using malted grains (containing enzymes) to convert starch from grains into sugar and then adding specific yeasts to produce
beer. In this process the carbohydrates in the grains were broken down into alcohols such as ethanol. Ancient Indians also used the juices of the
plant Ephedra Vulgaris and used to call it Soma. Later other cultures produced the process of Lactic acid fermentation which allowed the fermentation
and preservation of other forms of food. Fermentation was also used in this time period to produce leavened bread. Although the process of
fermentation was not fully understood until Louis Pasteur’s work in 1857, it is still the first use of biotechnology to convert a food source into
another form.

Combinations of plants and other organisms were used as medications in many early civilizations. Since as early as 200 BC, people began to use
disabled or minute amounts of infectious agents to immunize themselves against infections. These and similar processes have been refined in modern
medicine and have led to many developments such as antibiotics, vaccines, and other methods of fighting sickness.

In the early twentieth century scientists gained a greater understanding of microbiology and explored ways of manufacturing specific products. In
1917, Chaim Weizmann first used a pure microbiological culture in an industrial process, that of manufacturing corn starch using Clostridium
acetobutylicum to produce acetone, which the United Kingdom desperately needed to manufacture explosives during World War I.

The field of modern biotechnology is thought to have largely begun on June 16, 1980, when the United States Supreme Court ruled that a genetically-
modified microorganism could be patented in the case of Diamond v. Chakrabarty. Indian-born Ananda Chakrabarty, working for General Electric, had
developed a bacterium (derived from the Pseudomonas genus) capable of breaking down crude oil, which he proposed to use in treating oil spills.

Revenue in the industry is expected to grow by 12.9% in 2008. Another factor influencing the biotechnology sector’s success is improved intellectual
property rights legislation — and enforcement — worldwide, as well as strengthened demand for medical and pharmaceutical products to cope with an
ageing, and ailing, U.S. population .

Rising demand for biofuels is expected to be good news for the biotechnology sector, with the Department of Energy estimating ethanol usage could
reduce U.S. petroleum-derived fuel consumption by up to 30% by 2030. The biotechnology sector has allowed the U.S. farming industry to rapidly
increase its supply of corn and soybeans — the main inputs into biofuels — by developing genetically-modified seeds which are resistant to pests
and drought. By boosting farm productivity, biotechnology plays a crucial role in ensuring that biofuel production targets are met.

Applications Biotechnology has applications in four major industrial areas, including health care (medical), crop production and agriculture, non
food (industrial) uses of crops and other products (e.g. biodegradable plastics, vegetable oil, biofuels), and environmental uses.

For example, one application of biotechnology is the directed use of organisms for the manufacture of organic products (examples include beer and
milk products). Another example is using naturally present bacteria by the mining industry in bioleaching. Biotechnology is also used to recycle,
treat waste, clean up sites contaminated by industrial activities (bioremediation), and also to produce biological weapons.

A series of derived terms have been coined to identify several branches of biotechnology, for example:

Red biotechnology is applied to medical processes. Some examples are the designing of organisms to produce antibiotics, and the engineering of
genetic cures through genomic manipulation.

A rose plant that began as cells grown in a tissue cultureGreen biotechnology is biotechnology applied to agricultural processes. An example would be
the selection and domestication of plants via micropropagation. Another example is the designing of transgenic plants to grow under specific
environmental conditions or in the presence (or absence) of certain agricultural chemicals. One hope is that green biotechnology might produce more
environmentally friendly solutions than traditional industrial agriculture. An example of this is the engineering of a plant to express a pesticide,
thereby eliminating the need for external application of pesticides. An example of this would be Bt corn. Whether or not green biotechnology products
such as this are ultimately more environmentally friendly is a topic of considerable debate. White biotechnology, also known as industrial
biotechnology, is biotechnology applied to industrial processes. An example is the designing of an organism to produce a useful chemical. Another
example is the using of enzymes as industrial catalysts to either produce valuable chemicals or destroy hazardous/polluting chemicals. White
biotechnology tends to consume less in resources than traditional processes used to produce industrial goods. Blue biotechnology is a term that has
been used to describe the marine and aquatic applications of biotechnology, but its use is relatively rare. The investments and economic output of
all of these types of applied biotechnologies form what has been described as the bioeconomy. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field which
addresses biological problems using computational techniques, and makes the rapid organization and analysis of biological data possible. The field
may also be referred to as computational biology, and can be defined as, “conceptualizing biology in terms of molecules and then applying informatics
techniques to understand and organize the information associated with these molecules, on a large scale.”[7] Bioinformatics plays a key role in
various areas, such as functional genomics, structural genomics, and proteomics, and forms a key component in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical
sector.

Medicine In medicine, modern biotechnology finds promising applications in such areas as

pharmacogenomics; drug production; genetic testing; and gene therapy.

Pharmacogenomics

DNA Microarray chip — Some can do as many as a million blood tests at onceMain article: Pharmacogenomics Pharmacogenomics is the study of how the
genetic inheritance of an individual affects his/her body’s response to drugs. It is a coined word derived from the words pharmacology and
genomics. It is hence the study of the relationship between pharmaceuticals and genetics. The vision of pharmacogenomics is to be able to design
and produce drugs that are adapted to each person’s genetic makeup.[8]

Pharmacogenomics results in the following benefits:[8]

1. Development of tailor-made medicines. Using pharmacogenomics, pharmaceutical companies can create drugs based on the proteins, enzymes and RNA
molecules that are associated with specific genes and diseases. These tailor-made drugs promise not only to maximize therapeutic effects but also to
decrease damage to nearby healthy cells.

2. More accurate methods of determining appropriate drug dosages. Knowing a patient’s genetics will enable doctors to determine how well his/ her
body can process and metabolize a medicine. This will maximize the value of the medicine and decrease the likelihood of overdose.

3. Improvements in the drug discovery and approval process. The discovery of potential therapies will be made easier using genome targets. Genes have
been associated with numerous diseases and disorders. With modern biotechnology, these genes can be used as targets for the development of effective
new therapies, which could significantly shorten the drug discovery process.

4. Better vaccines. Safer vaccines can be designed and produced by organisms transformed by means of genetic engineering. These vaccines will elicit
the immune response without the attendant risks of infection. They will be inexpensive, stable, easy to store, and capable of being engineered to
carry several strains of pathogen at once.

Pharmaceutical products

Computer-generated image of insulin hexamers highlighting the threefold symmetry, the zinc ions holding it together, and the histidine residues
involved in zinc binding.Most traditional pharmaceutical drugs are relatively simple molecules that have been found primarily through trial and error
to treat the symptoms of a disease or illness. Biopharmaceuticals are large biological molecules known as proteins and these usually target the
underlying mechanisms and pathways of a malady (but not always, as is the case with using insulin to treat type 1 diabetes mellitus, as that
treatment merely addresses the symptoms of the disease, not the underlying cause which is autoimmunity); it is a relatively young industry. They can
deal with targets in humans that may not be accessible with traditional medicines. A patient typically is dosed with a small molecule via a tablet
while a large molecule is typically injected.

Small molecules are manufactured by chemistry but larger molecules are created by living cells such as those found in the human body: for example,
bacteria cells, yeast cells, animal or plant cells.

Modern biotechnology is often associated with the use of genetically altered microorganisms such as E. coli or yeast for the production of substances
like synthetic insulin or antibiotics. It can also refer to transgenic animals or transgenic plants, such as Bt corn. Genetically altered mammalian
cells, such as Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, are also used to manufacture certain pharmaceuticals. Another promising new biotechnology
application is the development of plant-made pharmaceuticals.

Biotechnology is also commonly associated with landmark breakthroughs in new medical therapies to treat hepatitis B, hepatitis C, cancers, arthritis,
haemophilia, bone fractures, multiple sclerosis, and cardiovascular disorders. The biotechnology industry has also been instrumental in developing
molecular diagnostic devices than can be used to define the target patient population for a given biopharmaceutical. Herceptin, for example, was the
first drug approved for use with a matching diagnostic test and is used to treat breast cancer in women whose cancer cells express the protein HER2.

Modern biotechnology can be used to manufacture existing medicines relatively easily and cheaply. The first genetically engineered products were
medicines designed to treat human diseases. To cite one example, in 1978 Genentech developed synthetic humanized insulin by joining its gene with a
plasmid vector inserted into the bacterium Escherichia coli. Insulin, widely used for the treatment of diabetes, was previously extracted from the
pancreas of abattoir animals (cattle and/or pigs). The resulting genetically engineered bacterium enabled the production of vast quantities of
synthetic human insulin at relatively low cost[9], although the cost savings was used to increase profits for manufacturers, not passed on to
consumers or their healthcare providers. According to a 2003 study undertaken by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) on the access to and
availability of insulin in its member countries, synthetic ‘human’ insulin is considerably more expensive in most countries where both synthetic
‘human’ and animal insulin are commercially available: e.g. within European countries the average price of synthetic ‘human’ insulin was twice as
high as the price of pork insulin[10]. Yet in its position statement, the IDF writes that “there is no overwhelming evidence to prefer one species of
insulin over another” and “[modern, highly-purified] animal insulins remain a perfectly acceptable alternative[11].

Modern biotechnology has evolved, making it possible to produce more easily and relatively cheaply human growth hormone, clotting factors for
hemophiliacs, fertility drugs, erythropoietin and other drugs.[12] Most drugs today are based on about 500 molecular targets. Genomic knowledge of
the genes involved in diseases, disease pathways, and drug-response sites are expected to lead to the discovery of thousands more new targets.[12]

Genetic testing

Gel electrophoresisGenetic testing involves the direct examination of the DNA molecule itself. A scientist scans a patient’s DNA sample for mutated
sequences.

There are two major types of gene tests. In the first type, a researcher may design short pieces of DNA (probes) whose sequences are complementary
to the mutated sequences. These probes will seek their complement among the base pairs of an individual’s genome. If the mutated sequence is present
in the patient’s genome, the probe will bind to it and flag the mutation. In the second type, a researcher may conduct the gene test by comparing the
sequence of DNA bases in a patient’s gene to disease in healthy individuals or their progeny.

Genetic testing is now used for:

Determining sex Carrier screening, or the identification of unaffected individuals who carry one copy of a gene for a disease that requires two
copies for the disease to manifest Prenatal diagnostic screening Newborn screening Presymptomatic testing for predicting adult-onset disorders
Presymptomatic testing for estimating the risk of developing adult-onset cancers Confirmational diagnosis of symptomatic individuals
Forensic/identity testing Some genetic tests are already available, although most of them are used in developed countries. The tests currently
available can detect mutations associated with rare genetic disorders like cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, and Huntington’s disease. Recently,
tests have been developed to detect mutation for a handful of more complex conditions such as breast, ovarian, and colon cancers. However, gene tests
may not detect every mutation associated with a particular condition because many are as yet undiscovered, and the ones they do detect may present
different risks to different people and populations.[12]

Controversial questions

The bacterium E. coli is routinely genetically engineered.Several issues have been raised regarding the use of genetic testing:

1. Absence of cure. There is still a lack of effective treatment or preventive measures for many diseases and conditions now being diagnosed or
predicted using gene tests. Thus, revealing information about risk of a future disease that has no existing cure presents an ethical dilemma for
medical practitioners.

2. Ownership and control of genetic information. Who will own and control genetic information, or information about genes, gene products, or
inherited characteristics derived from an individual or a group of people like indigenous communities? At the macro level, there is a possibility of
a genetic divide, with developing countries that do not have access to medical applications of biotechnology being deprived of benefits accruing from
products derived from genes obtained from their own people. Moreover, genetic information can pose a risk for minority population groups as it can
lead to group stigmatization.

At the individual level, the absence of privacy and anti-discrimination legal protections in most countries can lead to discrimination in employment
or insurance or other misuse of personal genetic information. This raises questions such as whether genetic privacy is different from medical
privacy.[13]

3. Reproductive issues. These include the use of genetic information in reproductive decision-making and the possibility of genetically altering
reproductive cells that may be passed on to future generations. For example, germline therapy forever changes the genetic make-up of an individual’s
descendants. Thus, any error in technology or judgment may have far-reaching consequences. Ethical issues like designer babies and human cloning have
also given rise to controversies between and among scientists and bioethicists, especially in the light of past abuses with eugenics.

4. Clinical issues. These center on the capabilities and limitations of doctors and other health-service providers, people identified with genetic
conditions, and the general public in dealing with genetic information.

5. Effects on social institutions. Genetic tests reveal information about individuals and their families. Thus, test results can affect the dynamics
within social institutions, particularly the family.

6. Conceptual and philosophical implications regarding human responsibility, free will vis-à-vis genetic determinism, and the concepts of health and
disease.

Gene therapy Main article: Gene therapy

Gene therapy using an Adenovirus vector. A new gene is inserted into an adenovirus vector, which is used to introduce the modified DNA into a human
cell. If the treatment is successful, the new gene will make a functional protein.Gene therapy may be used for treating, or even curing, genetic and
acquired diseases like cancer and AIDS by using normal genes to supplement or replace defective genes or to bolster a normal function such as
immunity. It can be used to target somatic (i.e., body) or germ (i.e., egg and sperm) cells. In somatic gene therapy, the genome of the recipient is
changed, but this change is not passed along to the next generation. In contrast, in germline gene therapy, the egg and sperm cells of the parents
are changed for the purpose of passing on the changes to their offspring.

There are basically two ways of implementing a gene therapy treatment:

1. Ex vivo, which means outside the body Cells from the patient’s blood or bone marrow are removed and grown in the laboratory. They are then
exposed to a virus carrying the desired gene. The virus enters the cells, and the desired gene becomes part of the DNA of the cells. The cells are
allowed to grow in the laboratory before being returned to the patient by injection into a vein.

2. In vivo, which means inside the body No cells are removed from the patient’s body. Instead, vectors are used to deliver the desired gene to
cells in the patient’s body.

Currently, the use of gene therapy is limited. Somatic gene therapy is primarily at the experimental stage. Germline therapy is the subject of much
discussion but it is not being actively investigated in larger animals and human beings.

As of June 2001, more than 500 clinical gene-therapy trials involving about 3,500 patients have been identified worldwide. Around 78% of these are in
the United States, with Europe having 18%. These trials focus on various types of cancer, although other multigenic diseases are being studied as
well. Recently, two children born with severe combined immunodeficiency disorder (SCID) were reported to have been cured after being given
genetically engineered cells.

Gene therapy faces many obstacles before it can become a practical approach for treating disease.[14] At least four of these obstacles are as
follows:

1. Gene delivery tools. Genes are inserted into the body using gene carriers called vectors. The most common vectors now are viruses, which have
evolved a way of encapsulating and delivering their genes to human cells in a pathogenic manner. Scientists manipulate the genome of the virus by
removing the disease-causing genes and inserting the therapeutic genes. However, while viruses are effective, they can introduce problems like
toxicity, immune and inflammatory responses, and gene control and targeting issues.

2. Limited knowledge of the functions of genes. Scientists currently know the functions of only a few genes. Hence, gene therapy can address only
some genes that cause a particular disease. Worse, it is not known exactly whether genes have more than one function, which creates uncertainty as to
whether replacing such genes is indeed desirable.

3. Multigene disorders and effect of environment. Most genetic disorders involve more than one gene. Moreover, most diseases involve the interaction
of several genes and the environment. For example, many people with cancer not only inherit the disease gene for the disorder, but may have also
failed to inherit specific tumor suppressor genes. Diet, exercise, smoking and other environmental factors may have also contributed to their
disease.

4. High costs. Since gene therapy is relatively new and at an experimental stage, it is an expensive treatment to undertake. This explains why
current studies are focused on illnesses commonly found in developed countries, where more people can afford to pay for treatment. It may take
decades before developing countries can take advantage of this technology.

Human Genome Project

DNA Replication image from the Human Genome Project (HGP)The Human Genome Project is an initiative of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that aims
to generate a high-quality reference sequence for the entire human genome and identify all the human genes.

The DOE and its predecessor agencies were assigned by the U.S. Congress to develop new energy resources and technologies and to pursue a deeper
understanding of potential health and environmental risks posed by their production and use. In 1986, the DOE announced its Human Genome Initiative.
Shortly thereafter, the DOE and National Institutes of Health developed a plan for a joint Human Genome Project (HGP), which officially began in
1990.

The HGP was originally planned to last 15 years. However, rapid technological advances and worldwide participation accelerated the completion date to
2003 (making it a 13 year project). Already it has enabled gene hunters to pinpoint genes associated with more than 30 disorders.[15]

Cloning Cloning involves the removal of the nucleus from one cell and its placement in an unfertilized egg cell whose nucleus has either been
deactivated or removed.

There are two types of cloning:

1. Reproductive cloning. After a few divisions, the egg cell is placed into a uterus where it is allowed to develop into a fetus that is genetically
identical to the donor of the original nucleus.

2. Therapeutic cloning.[16] The egg is placed into a Petri dish where it develops into embryonic stem cells, which have shown potentials for treating
several ailments.[17]

In February 1997, cloning became the focus of media attention when Ian Wilmut and his colleagues at the Roslin Institute announced the successful
cloning of a sheep, named Dolly, from the mammary glands of an adult female. The cloning of Dolly made it apparent to many that the techniques used
to produce her could someday be used to clone human beings.[18] This stirred a lot of controversy because of its ethical implications.

Agriculture

Improve yield from crops Using the techniques of modern biotechnology, one or two genes may be transferred to a highly developed crop variety to
impart a new character that would increase its yield (30). However, while increases in crop yield are the most obvious applications of modern
biotechnology in agriculture, it is also the most difficult one. Current genetic engineering techniques work best for effects that are controlled by
a single gene. Many of the genetic characteristics associated with yield (e.g., enhanced growth) are controlled by a large number of genes, each of
which has a minimal effect on the overall yield (31). There is, therefore, much scientific work to be done in this area.

Reduced vulnerability of crops to environmental stresses Crops containing genes that will enable them to withstand biotic and abiotic stresses may
be developed. For example, drought and excessively salty soil are two important limiting factors in crop productivity. Biotechnologists are studying
plants that can cope with these extreme conditions in the hope of finding the genes that enable them to do so and eventually transferring these genes
to the more desirable crops. One of the latest developments is the identification of a plant gene, At-DBF2, from thale cress, a tiny weed that is
often used for plant research because it is very easy to grow and its genetic code is well mapped out. When this gene was inserted into tomato and
tobacco cells (see RNA interference), the cells were able to withstand environmental stresses like salt, drought, cold and heat, far more than
ordinary cells. If these preliminary results prove successful in larger trials, then At-DBF2 genes can help in engineering crops that can better
withstand harsh environments (32). Researchers have also created transgenic rice plants that are resistant to rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV). In
Africa, this virus destroys majority of the rice crops and makes the surviving plants more susceptible to fungal infections (33).

Increased nutritional qualities of food crops Proteins in foods may be modified to increase their nutritional qualities. Proteins in legumes and
cereals may be transformed to provide the amino acids needed by human beings for a balanced diet (34). A good example is the work of Professors Ingo
Potrykus and Peter Beyer on the so-called Goldenrice(discussed below).

Improved taste, texture or appearance of food Modern biotechnology can be used to slow down the process of spoilage so that fruit can ripen longer
on the plant and then be transported to the consumer with a still reasonable shelf life. This improves the taste, texture and appearance of the
fruit. More importantly, it could expand the market for farmers in developing countries due to the reduction in spoilage.

The first genetically modified food product was a tomato which was transformed to delay its ripening (35). Researchers in Indonesia, Malaysia,
Thailand, Philippines and Vietnam are currently working on delayed-ripening papaya in collaboration with the University of Nottingham and Zeneca
(36).

Biotechnology in cheese production[19]: enzymes produced by micro-organisms provide an alternative to animal rennet a cheese coagulant – and an
alternative supply for cheese makers. This also eliminates possible public concerns with animal-derived material, although there is currently no
plans to develop synthetic milk, thus making this argument less compelling. Enzymes offer an animal-friendly alternative to animal rennet. While
providing comparable quality, they are theoretically also less expensive.

About 85 million tons of wheat flour is used every year to bake bread[20]. By adding an enzyme called maltogenic amylase to the flour, bread stays
fresher longer. Assuming that 10-15% of bread is thrown away, if it could just stay fresh another 5 to 7 days then 2 million tons of flour per year
would be saved. That corresponds to 40% of the bread consumed in a country such as the USA. This means more bread becomes available with no increase
in input. In combination with other enzymes, bread can also be made bigger, more appetizing and better in a range of ways.

Reduced dependence on fertilizers, pesticides and other agrochemicals Most of the current commercial applications of modern biotechnology in
agriculture are on reducing the dependence of farmers on agrochemicals. For example, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a soil bacterium that produces a
protein with insecticidal qualities. Traditionally, a fermentation process has been used to produce an insecticidal spray from these bacteria. In
this form, the Bt toxin occurs as an inactive protoxin, which requires digestion by an insect to be effective. There are several Bt toxins and each
one is specific to certain target insects. Crop plants have now been engineered to contain and express the genes for Bt toxin, which they produce in
its active form. When a susceptible insect ingests the transgenic crop cultivar expressing the Bt protein, it stops feeding and soon thereafter dies
as a result of the Bt toxin binding to its gut wall. Bt corn is now commercially available in a number of countries to control corn borer (a
lepidopteran insect), which is otherwise controlled by spraying (a more difficult process).

Crops have also been genetically engineered to acquire tolerance to broad-spectrum herbicide. The lack of cost-effective herbicides with broad-
spectrum activity and no crop injury was a consistent limitation in crop weed management. Multiple applications of numerous herbicides were routinely
used to control a wide range of weed species detrimental to agronomic crops. Weed management tended to rely on preemergence that is, herbicide
applications were sprayed in response to expected weed infestations rather than in response to actual weeds present. Mechanical cultivation and hand
weeding were often necessary to control weeds not controlled by herbicide applications. The introduction of herbicide tolerant crops has the
potential of reducing the number of herbicide active ingredients used for weed management, reducing the number of herbicide applications made during
a season, and increasing yield due to improved weed management and less crop injury. Transgenic crops that express tolerance to glyphosate,
glufosinate and bromoxynil have been developed. These herbicides can now be sprayed on transgenic crops without inflicting damage on the crops while
killing nearby weeds (37).

From 1996 to 2001, herbicide tolerance was the most dominant trait introduced to commercially available transgenic crops, followed by insect
resistance. In 2001, herbicide tolerance deployed in soybean, corn and cotton accounted for 77% of the 626,000 square kilometres planted to
transgenic crops; Bt crops accounted for 15%; and “stacked genes” for herbicide tolerance and insect resistance used in both cotton and corn
accounted for 8% (38).

Production of novel substances in crop plants Biotechnology is being applied for novel uses other than food. For example, oilseed can be modified to
produce fatty acids for detergents, substitute fuels and petrochemicals.[citation needed] Potatos, tomatos, rice, tobacco, lettuce, safflowers, and
other plants have been genetically-engineered to produce insulin[citation needed] and certain vaccines. If future clinical trials prove successful,
the advantages of edible vaccines would be enormous, especially for developing countries. The transgenic plants may be grown locally and cheaply.
Homegrown vaccines would also avoid logistical and economic problems posed by having to transport traditional preparations over long distances and
keeping them cold while in transit. And since they are edible, they will not need syringes, which are not only an additional expense in the
traditional vaccine preparations but also a source of infections if contaminated.[21] In the case of insulin grown in transgenic plants, it is well-
established that the gastrointestinal system breaks the protein down therefore this could not currently be administered as an edible protein.
However, it might be produced at significantly lower cost than insulin produced in costly, bioreactors. For example, Calgary, Canada-based SemBioSys
Genetics, Inc. reports that its safflower-produced insulin will reduce unit costs by over 25% or more and reduce the capital costs associated with
building a commercial-scale insulin manufacturing facility by approximately over $100 million compared to traditional biomanufacturing
facilities[22].

Criticism There is another side to the agricultural biotechnology issue however. It includes increased herbicide usage and resultant herbicide
resistance, “super weeds,” residues on and in food crops, genetic contamination of non-GM crops which hurt organic and conventional farmers, damage
to wildlife from glyphosate, etc.[23][24]

Biological engineering Main article: Bioengineering Biotechnological engineering or biological engineering is a branch of engineering that focuses
on biotechnologies and biological science. It includes different disciplines such as biochemical engineering, biomedical engineering, bio-process
engineering, biosystem engineering and so on. Because of the novelty of the field, the definition of a bioengineer is still undefined. However, in
general it is an integrated approach of fundamental biological sciences and traditional engineering principles.

Bioengineers are often employed to scale up bio processes from the laboratory scale to the manufacturing scale. Moreover, as with most engineers,
they often deal with management, economic and legal issues. Since patents and regulation (e.g. FDA regulation in the U.S.) are very important issues
for biotech enterprises, bioengineers are often required to have knowledge related to these issues.

The increasing number of biotech enterprises is likely to create a need for bioengineers in the years to come. Many universities throughout the world
are now providing programs in bioengineering and biotechnology (as independent programs or specialty programs within more established engineering
fields).

Bioremediation and Biodegradation Main article: Microbial biodegradation Biotechnology is being used to engineer and adapt organisms especially
microorganisms in an effort to find sustainable ways to clean up contaminated environments. The elimination of a wide range of pollutants and wastes
from the environment is an absolute requirement to promote a sustainable development of our society with low environmental impact. Biological
processes play a major role in the removal of contaminants and biotechnology is taking advantage of the astonishing catabolic versatility of
microorganisms to degrade/convert such compounds. New methodological breakthroughs in sequencing, genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics and imaging
are producing vast amounts of information. In the field of Environmental Microbiology, genome-based global studies open a new era providing
unprecedented in silico views of metabolic and regulatory networks, as well as clues to the evolution of degradation pathways and to the molecular
adaptation strategies to changing environmental conditions. Functional genomic and metagenomic approaches are increasing our understanding of the
relative importance of different pathways and regulatory networks to carbon flux in particular environments and for particular compounds and they
will certainly accelerate the development of bioremediation technologies and biotransformation processes.[25]

Marine environments are especially vulnerable since oil spills of coastal regions and the open sea are poorly containable and mitigation is
difficult. In addition to pollution through human activities, millions of tons of petroleum enter the marine environment every year from natural
seepages.

Despite its toxicity, a considerable fraction of petroleum oil entering marine systems is eliminated by the hydrocarbon-degrading
activities of microbial communities, in particular by a remarkable recently discovered group of specialists, the so-called hydrocarbonoclastic
bacteria (HCB).[26]

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